AIOU M.Ed./M.A-STED Secondary Education-II (827) ASSIGNMENT No. 1

AIOU M.Ed./M.A-STED Secondary Education-II (827) ASSIGNMENT No. 1

Q.1 Explain aims and objectives of higher secondary keeping your experiences in view the existing scheme of studies.

Definition of aims and objectives for teaching and learning; that is with the prior specification of what teachers intend to teach or what it is hoped learners will learn. The paper also discusses important links between objectives and assessment.

Q.2 Reasons for Stating Aims and Objectives

The statement of educational aims and objectives has several benefits: To help teachers design the course – the content, the methods, and the assessment; to communicate the educational intent of the course to students and to colleagues; to help identify the resources needed to undertake the teaching; to provide a basis for evaluating the course, and a basis for quality assurance. A further reason for setting out aims and objectives is that SHEFC’s Teaching Quality Assessment is made with reference to provider’s own statement of aims and objectives.

Aims, Objectives, and Learning Outcomes

These terms are used in a technical sense and it is important for all teaching staff to be aware of their meanings. Broadly speaking, all educational purposes can be defined in one of two ways: (a) What it is intended that the teacher will do (an aim or a teacher-driven objective); (b) What it is intended that the student will have learnt, or will be able to do, as a result of a learning There is therefore now a broad agreement that for each teaching activity there should be two types of statement of intent:

The Aim
A brief statement setting out the intention in providing the degree programmer or course in terms of the scope of the subject, and the overall learning outcomes sought. Objectives (or intended learning outcomes)
a number of specific statements setting out what it is intended the student will have learned or be able to do as a result of the educational experience.

A Hierarchy of Aims and Objectives
There are a number of circumstances in which aims and objectives can be specified. These are set out in Figure 1 in the form of a hierarchy in which the higher levels (egg the degree programmer) should determine the nature of the aims and objectives adopted for the lower level (egg a course). Or, to put the point in another way, the achievement of higher-level aims will depend on achieving lower level aims. Figure 1 showing the relationship between aims and objectives at different levels.

  1. Classification of Educational Objectives
    Educational objectives can cover a range of different types of intended learning outcomes. The most recent documentation from the Scottish Higher Education Funding Council for 1997/98 lists the following: “The acquisition of knowledge, the development of understanding and other general intellectual abilities, the development of conceptual, intellectual and subject-specific skills, the development of generic or transferable skills, and the development of values, of motivation or of attitudes”.
    These can be summarized as follows:
    Personal transferable skills Includes inter-personal as well as personal skills; includes also most “Enterprise” competencies;
    Conceptual knowledge and skills Also known as “methodological”; egg critical thinking, writing, creativity, hypothesis design and testing, etc. Knowing how to learn.
    Discipline-related knowledge and skills Subject knowledge and understanding. Subject specific skills (egg in lab).
    Attitudinal Values, motivation and attitudes.
  2. The Framing of Objectives at Course and Session Level
    Objectives should be phrased in terms of what students will know and can do rather than what teachers intend, but there is debate about the form that these statements of outcomes should take.
    As a principle, they should be framed as explicitly and precisely as possible taking account of the nature of the course and the nature of the outcomes Objectives stated as behaviors may give better guidance for students and staff. In this case, these would read: list the main structures of the human outer, middle and inner ear; explain how sound waves are transduced to nerve impulses and identify where this occurs; contrast conductive with sensor neural deafness; outline the neurological pathway between the cochlear hair cells and the auditory area of the cortex. However, these behavioral objectives, are not necessarily equivalent in every respect to the concept of understanding.
    Q.2 What are the functions of National Bureau of curriculum? Give suggestions to improve it. (20)
    The functions of National Bureau of curriculum:
    Curriculum Developer Functions
    Conduct Extensive Research Regarding Curricula
    Create Curricula
    Work with Teachers and Administrators to Implement Curriculum
    Recommend Changes
    Continue Monitoring and Training Curriculum
    If you’re looking for a job in the education field, but want a more “behind the scenes” kind of career, you may be considering becoming a curriculum developer.
  3. Conduct Extensive Research Regarding Curricula
    These types of professionals spend a lot of time doing research to help decide what direction the school’s administration, teachers, and students should go. They may look at studies or conduct meetings with different types of people in the field to help them decide what ways students should learn, how teachers should be trained, and what the students should be taught. They can analyze data from many sources, including test results and specific topics, to help guide them to the best strategy.
  4. Create Curricula
    This seems like a very broad term; and it is. These specialists help to create curriculums for the school administration after doing extensive research. This includes deciding what students will learn and how they will learn; from choosing books, to deciding on testing requirements and creating a path that students will take. They will spend time reviewing and recommending textbooks, tests, and other educational materials to guide students down the specific curriculum they have created.
  5. Work with Teachers and Administrators to Implement Curriculum
    After these developers decide on and create a curriculum, they must then help the administration and teachers implement it. First they must present their curriculum to the administration to be approved, and give them the plan on action for implementing said curriculum. After approval, they begin conducting meetings, training sessions, and other means of education. They must ensure that everyone is on board so to speak, so that the curriculum is being taught in a streamlined manner. These specialists may also mentor or coach teachers on improving their skills so that they may better teach the curriculum.
  6. Recommend Changes
    This function goes hand-in-hand with the research side of the job. Curriculum developers must make recommendations based on a variety of different factors, like the research they have done, test evaluations, student/teacher happiness, and effectiveness. These curriculum developers can make recommendations regarding “teaching techniques and the use of different or new technologies,” for example, as stated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. It is their job to ensure that everyone has to tools necessary to implement the curriculum, from books, to tests and technologies.
  7. Continue Monitoring and Training Curriculum
    These specialists’ jobs aren’t over simply after they have created and implemented the curriculum. They must continue monitoring progress, including conducting studies, sitting in on teachers’ classes, and making recommendations. They can conduct training or recommend changes to teachers to better help them. They must not only ensure that the new curriculum is
    being used, but that it is being followed correctly. This kind of monitoring can also allow developers to make adjustments and changes to the curriculum to better suit necessary needs.
    A curriculum developer has an extremely important job. The education system (at any level) would not function without the hard work of those who create the system that is taught and learned. This list of 5 typical functions has hopefully helped you understand better what these types of specialists do and how important their work is to the entire education system. The following recommendations were made.
  8. Practicing educators, both administrators and classroom instructors, must be directly involved in successful curriculum revision processes.
    Not only must the “team” approach be fully implemented in the initial revision process, the two elements must be consistently sustained.
  9. The time frame for training and revision procedures should be of short duration.
    The “one-shot” approach does not work. The single day, or even two or three day training sessions are not effective. The results of this study indicated that combined with number one above, the revision process, training, conversations, and review, must be long-term and periodic.
  10. The review process must be consistent throughout an extended period of revision.
    This is addressed above. Teachers stated, both statistically and anecdotally, that without consistent, frequent, periodic review of the changing curriculum, the process is little more than an exercise in futility.
    The practitioners strongly suggested that a willingness to adapt their instruction would occur as soon as the curriculum revision became significant enough to merit continuous discussion and implementation, i.e. evaluation, student involvement, teacher involvement, parental involvement, and administrative support.
  11. Participants in the revision process should have access to continuous assistance, opportunity for frequent discussion, and periodic review throughout the entire process. This will increase the essential “buy-in” noted so often as vital for effective curriculum reform.
    Discussed previously. Teachers consistently emphasized professional discussion, consistent opportunities to review the changes, and evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed changes.
  12. In-district expertise must be combined with out-of-district authorities to better accommodate demands and the expectations of the curricular revision procedures.
    The often used term “buy-in” cannot be over-emphasized in this study. The results indicated that while information from experts who study curriculum revision extensively is well-received, there must be an internal review process and support system to fully effect the process. Returning to the now familiar refrain, the out-of-district opportunities cannot replace the in-district consistency of review needed to fully implement an effective process.
    In both, districts which felt they had attained successful curriculum revision, as well as in districts which felt they had not been successful, similar indicators emerged. First, specific knowledge related to the revision process must be
    provided. Second, the review process must be in-house, frequent, and supportive.
  13. Better understanding of the curriculum, curricular revision, and curriculum needs are being developed. Further need exists, however, as indicated by the lack of change in classroom instruction.
    As we accept the changing needs of our schools, we accept the changing needs of the curriculum. To effectively implement these changes, however, we must begin to learn more about the process of systemic change, how to implement it effectively, and how to incorporate the ideal of teacher leadership throughout the curriculum revision process.
    To effect long-lasting change in classroom instruction, a substantive change must first occur in the curriculum.
    The building leader must collaborate even more effectively with his/her staff and constituencies. No one individual can be responsible for the entire curriculum revision process; it is truly a ‘team-approach’
    Q.3 Discuss the history, status and functions of federal directorate of education. The Federal Board of Intermediate &Secondary Education (FBISE) Islamabad established under FBISE ACT 1975, is an autonomous body of Ministry “Federal Education and Professional Training Division”. It is empowered with administrative and financial authority to organize, regulate, develop and control Intermediate and Secondary Education in general and conduct examinations in the institutions affiliated with.
    Role and Responsibilities
  14. Affiliate institutions imparting SSC and HSSC education within Pakistan and abroad.
  15. Prescribe courses of instructions for SSC and HSSC
  16. Ensure provision of requisite facilities in the affiliated institutions
  17. Hold exams, appoint examiners and supervisory staff
  18. Institute measures to promote physical wellbeing of students[3]
    Vision Mission
    To contribute towards the progressive attainment of national aims and objectives of education at the Secondary and Higher Secondary levels within the country and abroad through a fair, transparent and efficient examination system, with a futuristic vision, under overall control of the Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training and in close collaboration with other Boards of Education.[4]
    Jurisdiction of Fibs
  19. Islamabad Capital Territory
  20. All over Pakistan (Cantonments and Garrisons)
  21. Federally Administered Northern Areas
  22. Overseas[5]
    Composition of the Board
  23. The Board shall consist of the following members, namely,
  24. The Chairman, to be appointed by the Federal Government.
  25. two Vice-Chancellors to be nominated by the University Grants Commission;
  26. a nominee of the Ministry of Education not below the rank of Deputy Secretary in the Federal Government;
  27. a nominee of the Directorate of Military Lands and Cantonments to represent the Cantonment Boards;
  28. one principal to be elected in the prescribed manner by the principals from amongst themselves;
  29. one headmaster of a school for boys to be elected in the prescribed manner by the headmasters of schools for boys from amongst themselves;
  30. one headmistress of a school for girls to be elected in the prescribed manner by the headmistresses of schools for girls from amongst themselves;
  31. the Director General, Federal Directorate of Education, Islamabad;
  32. The Director, Institute of Islamic Research, Islamabad.
  33. three members, of whom one shall be a woman, to be elected by the national Assembly from amongst its members;
  34. Two members to be elected by the Senate from among its members; and
  35. one representative each of the Provincial Government, the Azad Government of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the administration of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the Areas of Gigot, Batista, Nagar Haveli and Hamza
    Q.4 Discuss the principles of curriculum construction in detail. (20)
    The principles of curriculum construction
    The main principles of curriculum construction may be mentioned as under:
  36. Principle of Child Centeredness.
    As modern education is child-centered the curriculum should also be child-centered. It should be based on the child’s needs, interests, abilities, aptitude, age level and circumstances. The child should be central figure in any scheme of curriculum construction. In fact, curriculum is meant to bring about the development of the child in the desired direction so that he is able to adjust well in life.
    Highlights
    Principles of Curriculum Construction are:
  37. Principles of Child Centeredness;
  38. Principle of Community Centeredness;
  39. Principle of Activity Centeredness;
  40. Principle of Variety;
  41. Principle of Co-ordinations and Integration;
  42. Principle of Conservation;
  43. Principle of Creativity;
  44. Principle of Forward. Looking;
  45. Principle of Flexibility;
  46. Principle of Balance;
  47. Principle of Utility.
  48. Principle of Community Centeredness.
    Though the child’s development and growth is the main consideration of curriculum construction, yet his social behavior is also to be suitably developed, both the individual development and the social development of the child deserve equal attention. He is to live in and for the society.
    Therefore, his needs and desires must be in conformity with the needs and desires of the society in which he is to live. The values, attitudes and skills that are prevailing in the community must be reflected in the curriculum. However, the society is not static. It is dynamic. Its needs and requirements are changing with the rapid developments taking place in all fields. While working for the development, this factor cannot be ignored.
  49. Principle of Activity Centeredness.
    The curriculum should center round the multifarious activities of pupils. It should provide well selected activities according to the general interests and developmental stages of children. It should provide constructive, creative and project activities. For small children, play activities should also be provided.
    The purposeful activities both in the class-room and outside the class-room should be provided. It is through a network of activities that the desired experiences can be provided and consequently desirable behavioral changes can be brought about in children.
  50. Principle of Variety.
    The curriculum should be broad-based so as to accommodate the needs of varied categories of pupils, so that they are able to take up subjects and participate in activities according their capacities and interests.
    The needs of pupils also change from place to place. For example, the pupils in rural areas, urban areas, and hilly areas will have different needs. The needs of boys and girls are also different. So these considerations should be reflected in the curriculum.
  51. Principle of Co-ordination and Integration.
    Of course, the pupils are to be provided with selected experiences through various subjects and activities but these must be well integrated. Various subjects and activities have to serve the same ultimate purpose, the achievement of the aims of education. The activities and subjects should not be put in after-tight compartments but these should be inter-related and well integrated so as to develop the whole child.
  52. Principles of Conservation.
    One of the main functions of education is to preserve and transmit our cultural heritage. This is essential for human progress. Culture consists of traditions, customs, attitudes, skills, conduct, values and knowledge. However, the curriculum framers must make a suitable selection of the elements of culture, keeping n view their educational value and the developmental stage of pupils.
  53. Principle of Creativity.
    The conservation of culture helps to sustain the society. The culture should not be simply transmitted but also enriched. There should be provision in the curriculum to develop he creative powers of the child so that he becomes a contributory member society. Reymont says, “In curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the future, there must be definitely creative subjects.”
  54. Principle of Forward Looking.
    Education is to enable the child to lead a successful social life. So the curriculum should not cater to the present needs of the child alone. The needs of his future life should also be
    considered. The curriculum should also include knowledge, skills, experiences, influences etc. which will develop in the child abilities and power to make effective adjustments in the later life.
  55. Principle of Flexibility.
    In our age, rapid developments are taking place in various fields. Consequently the needs of society are hanging. The content of curriculum cannot be same for all times to come. It should not be static. It must be dynamic and change with the changing times. It should reflect the latest trends in the field of education and psychology.
    Q.5 Discuss examination, promotion and certification process presently prevailing in Pakistan and give suggestion for its improvement. (5+5+5+5)
    Examination Regulations
  56. Examination Regulations
  57. Identification
    Please note, all identification needs to be valid i.e. the date on the identification must not have expired.
    1.1 The identification that candidates bring to their examination must bear the exact name that their examination has been booked under. If the name on a candidates’ identification does not match the name that their examination was booked under, they will not be allowed to sit.
    1.2 Candidates must show proof of their identity (other than the entry acknowledgement letter) to any ICM examination official who requests it. Candidates must bring to the examination:
     Personal identification, which includes a photograph (it must resemble your current appearance), name, and signature, and their confirmation letter;
     Candidates who have recently changed their name need to refer to the ICM Name change policy.
    1.3 Acceptable forms of ID
    Candidates’ personal identification must clearly show their photograph, name and signature. The
    photograph must resemble your current appearance. One of the following documents is
    acceptable for this purpose:
     A valid Passport of any country.
     A valid full or provisional new style Pakistani driving license issued by any provincial or
    federal government.
     The photograph on the license must resemble your current appearance.
     A valid Computerized National Identity Card issued by Government of Pakistan.
    1.4 Non-acceptable forms of ID
    Please note that International driving licenses from any country other than Pakistan, Rail cards,
    Photo cards, Student photo cards or photo credit cards are not acceptable. In all cases ID must be
    original, photocopies are not acceptable.
  58. Permitted Examination Materials
    2.1 Candidates must leave the following in a locker or other area specified by the Invigilator:
    Briefcases, bags, books (including dictionaries), revision notes, mobile phones, and other
    personal belongings. No reference material, books, revision notes or digital / programmable
    equipment including watches are allowed into the examination room. The ICM accepts no
    responsibility for the loss of any valuables.
  59. Entry and Exit to Examinations
    3.1 Candidates are required to arrive at the examination venue at least 20 minutes prior to the
    start of the examination. You may not be allowed to enter the examination room if you arrive late
    for the examination.
    .
  60. Unprofessional Behavior
    4.1 Candidates’ attention is drawn to the consequences of any unprofessional behavior, which a
    candidate displays before, during or after the examination. Where it has been established that a
    candidate has behaved inappropriately, the ICM reserves the right to contact the candidate’s firm
    and it may be notified.
  61. Liability
    Except for any liability of the ICM for negligence, the ICM’s liability is limited to a full refund
    of the examination fee paid for the examination concerned, with the sole consent of ICM and no
    influence or decision of any external authority, except under the laws of Pakistan.
  62. Compliance with the Regulations
    6.1. The candidate undertakes to comply with these regulations and in the event of any failure to
    do so the ICM may cancel the candidate’s entry for the examination, terminate the candidate’s
    participation in the examination and escort the candidate from the examination, or decline to
    issue the candidate with a result for the examination, and may notify the candidate’s employer.
    In any such case, neither the ICM nor the examinations invigilator nor his / her staff shall be
    liable for any loss (financial or otherwise) accruing to the candidate and / or their firm.
  63. Assistance prior to and during Examinations
    7.1. Candidates who require wheelchair access must contact Client Services to make the
    necessary arrangements.
  64. Refusal of Entry
    8.1 The ICM expressly reserves the right to refuse entry to an examination to any candidate who
    has previously passed the same examination, or who has sat the examination on several
    occasions.
  65. Candidates with particular assessment requirements
    9.1 The ICM policy is to ensure that there are no unnecessary barriers to assessment that prevent
    candidates from effectively demonstrating their competence. At the same time, The ICM has to
    ensure that candidates requiring special examination arrangements are not given any unfair
    advantages.
  66. Candidates with particular assessment requirements
    10.1 The assessment procedures of the ICM are designed to ensure reliable, valid and accurate
    outcomes.
    10.2 Complaints relating to the quality of the training providers or quality of learning resources
    such as study guides will only be considered in respect of the ICM recommended learning
    resources. Candidates should note that examinations are based on the examinable syllabus, not
    on study guides or training courses content…
    Recommendation One: Support Teaching and Learning
    Intuitively, the first step towards building better education system in Pakistan is supporting
    academia. This can be accomplished primarily by following the National Curriculum of Pakistan
    and developing syllabi based on it. The syllabi should be equipped to make use of achievable
    Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs), which clearly define what a student’s takeaway from each
    topic on any given subject should be.
    Recommendation Two: Ensure Quality of Examinations
    To ensure quality of examination papers, a quality assurance process of examination
    development is necessary. This process should ensure the complete alignment with the syllabus,
    and guarantee fairness and a linear increase in difficulty during the development of papers
    themselves. Processes must be developed to ensure the examination is measuring a student’s
    ability beyond knowledge such as understanding of the concepts, its application, problem solving
    etc.
    Recommendation Three: Ensure Quality of Assessment Data
    Just as there is a need to ensure quality in exam construction, there is a need to ensure the quality of
    assessment data for a reliable, valid, and fair assessment, too. This is primarily accomplished
    through an extensive psychometric analysis that looks at the response of each examination items to
    strengthen the quality assurance process
    Recommendation Four: Ensure Fairness and Transparency in the Conduct of Examinations
    Impersonation, cheating, and leakage of examination papers threaten the fair and transparent
    conduct of examination — technology can be utilized to combat them. For example, CCTV
    monitoring of examination halls can go a long way towards preventing cheating or improper
    conduct of examinations, and further instill a sense of there being zero tolerance towards any type of unfair practices…

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