AIOU M.Ed./M.A-STED Secondary Education-II (827) ASSIGNMENT No.2

AIOU M.Ed./M.A-STED Secondary Education-II (827) ASSIGNMENT No.2

AIOU M.Ed./M.A-STED Secondary Education-II (827) ASSIGNMENTQ.1 Compare the formal education of Japan and Malaysia, give suggestions for improvement in the Pakistani education system.

Formal education of Japan and Malaysia:
Education in Malaysia is overseen by the Ministry of Education (Kementerian Pendidikan).
Although education is the responsibility of the Federal Government, each state and federal territory has an Education Department to co-ordinate educational matters in its territory. The main legislation governing education is the Education Act 1996.
The education system is divided into preschool education, primary education, secondary education, post-secondary education, and tertiary education. It is further divided into public and private education. Education may be obtained from the multilingual public school system, which provides free education for all Malaysians, or private schools, or through homeschooling. International and private institutions charge school fees. By law, primary education is compulsory. As in many Asia-Pacific countries such as the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Japan, standardized tests are a common feature. Currently, there are 43 universities, 31 private
university colleges, 9 foreign university branch campuses, and 414 private colleges in Malaysia. Japan is one of the world’s most compelling success stories in education. The country features consistently among the world’s top-performing systems in OECD PISA*, the leading international test of competence among 15-year-old school students, with regard to the quality of learning outcomes, equity in the distribution of learning opportunities, and value for money. Japan’s strong commitment to education fuelled rapid economic growth in the post-war period, and thanks to high-quality human capital, it is one of the key players in the production of high technology, high value-added products. By the 1980s, Japan could declare that it had caught up with the most advanced industrialized nations, both economically and with regard to its education system. And by the time the Fundamental Law on Education was revised in 2006, much had changed since the law was adopted in 1947. Life expectancy for men had risen from 50 to 79 years, and for women from 54 to 85 years. The high school attendance rate had grown from 43% to 98%. University attendance had climbed from 10% to 49%. But catching up with the rest of the world and emulating others is easier than charting a new future. There are ongoing concerns in Japan about a loss in moral standards and declining student motivation, coinciding with a perceived decline in the country’s edge in innovation. So while Western experts visit Japan to learn from its success in education, many Japanese people are worried that high student performance might no longer translate into success in business and in life. Where they ask, are our Nobel Prize winners? Where are the people with the kinds of breakthrough ideas that could create a new Microsoft or Apple, or even a new Sony or Nikon, or give rise to whole new industries to harness Japan’s brilliance in robotics, for instance?

key to Japan’s success in education has been the traditional belief that all children can be achievers. This is mirrored in the comparatively weak impact that social background has on educational outcomes. However, PISA suggests that these high standards of equity are coming under pressure. Japan’s efforts to devolve responsibilities for educational decision-making to schools and local authorities must now be accompanied by equity-related policies that attract the most talented teachers to the most challenging classrooms, and the most capable principals to the schools most in need of a boost. Effective school leadership is required, along with a stronger emphasis on informality, to allow quick decision-making, and freedom to act so that local education authorities and schools can react to changing situations and the surrounding environment. Many countries envy Japan for its clear and ambitious academic standards across the board, and
for coherent delivery chains through which curricular goals are achieved, thanks to high-quality instructional systems and practices, and approaches to student learning.

For improvement in the Pakistani education system.
. We need to have proper per capita in terms of Teacher/Student ratio, Doctor/Patient ratio
. The government education systems need up-gradation like O level/levels. The system should be like that a student be evaluated at school level on the basis of their particular abilities to comprehend and analyze in a subject or sports. No one should be forced into a career.
. Distribution of seats in universities should be like that each and everyone gets an education in nearby University (I am supposing that each university, whether it’s in the capital or in the village offer same quality education)
. Schools should offer more co-curricular activities (healthy competition) like Quiz, Spell Bee, Debates, and Sports with the proper system ( like intraclass,intra school, inter-schools, inter-city,
inter provinces,..)
. The exam system should be more practical based. Competitive exams should be only within the city not provincial, that would be better. (Support Individual)
. The teacher’s communication skills should be evaluated before his selection at length, not just one topic. Favoritism of the teachers should be abolished.
Q.2 Compare the sixth and seventh five-year educational plans regarding targets and achievements in secondary education.
The Seventh Five-Year Plans for National Economy of Pakistan, otherwise known as Seventh Plan,[1] were a set of highly centralized and planned economic development targets designed for the improvement of the standard of living, and overall strengthening of gross domestic product (GDP) growth in Pakistan, between the period of 1988 until its termination in 1993.
The seventh plan was drafted and presented by the Ministry of Finance(MoF), led by

then popularly elected Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, at the Parliament in 1988.[2] The plan was
studied by the Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) and resources were gathered to be allocated by the Planning Commission.[2] The seventh plan was an integral part of Bhutto’s social capitalist policies implementation and was also integrated with the nationalization program of former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The plan emphasized macroeconomics principles and was intended to support the development of the agricultural and electricity sectors in Pakistan in order to keep up the GDP growth rate, which at that time was 6.6%— one
of the highest in the world.Under this plan, science policy was further expanded to integrate academic scientific development into national development plans.[3] The seventh plan also took initiatives to revive
deregulation of the corporate sector but did not privatize the sector into private-ownership
management.[2] Unlike the sixth plan, not all targets were met and goals were not sufficiently
fulfilled. Only the agricultural and scientific development aspects of the plans were continued[3]
whilst all major initiatives were cancelled by the upcoming Prime Minister Nawaz Sharifwho
replaced the programme with an intensified privatization programme, launched in 1991.
Sixth Five Year Plan (1983-88)
Before the end of Fifth Five Year Plan preparation for Sixth Five Year Plan was made. NEC
approved the Plan well in time and implemented according to its schedule.
Size of the Plan:
The plan aimed at a financial outlay of Rs. 495 billion which was more than double the amount
of Fifth Five Year Plan. Rs. 295 billion were decided to spend in the public sector and Rs. 200
billion were decided to spend in private sector. As regard to the proposed resources to finance
the Plan two points were important:
(a) The share of net external resources in the gross investment would fall from 24% to
16% in the Sixth Five Year Plan.
(b) The compensating efforts in the domestic front were expected in the private sector, almost quadrupling the total private savings with little change in the size of the public savings.
(a) To make the production sector of the economy powerful and stable.
(b) To accelerate the rate of economic development so that the standard of living of the people may be raised.
(c) To increase agriculture production by using more fertilizers, better seeds and modern technology.
(d) To make the country self-sufficient in oil.
(e) To develop steel-based engineering goods, modernization of textiles, expansion of agro-based industries, etc.
(f) To provide maximum social services to increase the rate of literacy and to provide drinking water facilities, draining water facilities, etc.
(g) To create harmony among different sectors of the economy.

(a) To increase GDP by 6.5% p.a.
(b) To increase family income by Rs. 900 p.a.
(c) To increase agriculture production by 5% p.a.
(d) To increase industrial production by 9% p.a.
(e) To provide jobs to 4 million people during the Plan period.
(f) To provide facilities for electricity to 88% of the village population.
(g) To increase exports from $ 2.43 billion to $ 4.91 billion by the end of the Plan.
(h) To construct 15000 km of new roads from villages to cities.
(i) To lower dependence on foreign aid from 20 to 19% by the end of the Plan.
(j) To increase the efficiency of the private sector, certain effective measures would be taken so that the private sector may play its role effectively in the development of the economy.
(k) To enable 3 million acres of land for cultivation which had been destroyed by waterlogging and salinity.
It was decided to allocate 18.1% of the total expenditure to the agriculture and water sector, 20% to power, 18.1% to transportation, 15.6% to industry 12.2% to minerals, and 11.5% to social institutions. See the table below:

S strategy:
(a) High Growth Momentum: High rates of growth of GDP and another related macroeconomic variable are to be maintained:
(i) Emphasis on increased efficiency in agriculture, particularly self
sufficiency in oilseeds, expanding the exports of rice, cotton, and fruits, etc.
(ii) Balanced development of service industries, especially public services for basic human needs.
(iii) Balanced development of service industries, especially of private services for government servants and private people.
(b) Rural Transformation: Increased opportunities for small farmers and provision of
(c) Employment and Income Policies: Creation of about 4 million new jobs for
emphasis on small scale production in agriculture and industry, rural works programme,
vocational training with combination, income policy which related wages to productivity,
indicated salaries from fixed income growth.
(d) Decentralisation: To increase share of provincial governments in development
programme of public sector and also encouraging to local bodies to participate in
investment plans.
(e) Backward Regions: Recognition of the tribal and Balochistan as economically
backward regions and provision of special funds for specific development programmes in
these regions.
(f) Self Reliance: Continuing import substitution and export promotion policies and
reducing dependence on foreign aid.
Q.3 Critically analyse the on-going in-service training programs at the secondary level in
Pakistan. (20)
the on-going in-service training programs Education Sector in Pakistan
Despite the increase in budgets, enrollment in schools remains low, the quality of learning is poor,
and there are not enough buildings or teachers. Ali Abbas reviews the long-standing issues
with education in Pakistan.
Even after years of investments, reforms, and promises, the education sector remains weak in
Pakistan. Data from the Pakistan Education Statistics (2015–16) report, Annual Status of
Education Report (ASER) 2016, Alif Ailaan’s 2014 report titled “25 Million Broken Promises”
and various other sources identify key trends and challenges in the education sector. The 6
biggest challenges are:

  1. Children Who Should be Enrolled Are Out of Schools

Overall enrolment increased from 42.9 million students in 2013–14, to 44.4 million in 2014–15,
and to 47.5 million in 2015–16. In terms of children aged 5–16 years, enrolment increased from
27.3 million students in 2014–15 to 28.6 million students in 2015–16. An analysis based on stage
in education is given below:A big challenge is the children who should be enrolled in school but
are not. By focusing on how well children are doing at school, we limit our attention to those who
are enrolled. But the number of out-of-school children is not small either. In fact, in 2015–16,
while 28.6 million children aged 5–16 years were in school, 22.6 million were not.
Most children in the out-of-school population are boys:

Some of the reasons children drop out or don’t go to school in the first place include the families’ needs to keep children at home to help with farm work and other income-generating activities, as well as lack of motivation to study among the children, and inability to pay the expenses related to education:
Balochistan has the highest percentage of children who are out of school, with Azad Jammu and Kashmir having the lowest, according to ASER’s rural data.As expected, poorer children
predominantly enrol in public schools, and richer students on average, tend to enrol in private

  1. There Is Not Enough Infrastructure
    PES data shows that approximately 9% of schools do not have a building available. This implies
    that 9 out of 100 schools are held out in the open, putting students’ health at risk. Furthermore,
    even for schools that have buildings, a large number of them are in disrepair.
    Further, only 58% of schools have access to electricity, and approximately 68% have access to drinking water (PES 2015–16).
    Focusing on primary schools, private schools have better infrastructure as compared to public schools, as shown in the table below:
  2. Substantial Shortage of Trained Teachers
    The total number of teachers from primary to higher secondary levels has increased from 1.27 million in 2013–14 to 1.35 million in 2015–16. What is interesting to note is that while increasing amounts of money are being spent on teacher salaries for existing teachers, there is
    still a substantial shortage of teachers. The PES 2014–15 indicates that in Balochistan, a

shocking 23.7% of sanctioned posts are vacant. For Punjab, the figure is as high as 16.5%.
Figures for other regions are given in the table below. Data on sanctioned positions was
unavailable for Sindh and Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT).
Q.4 What is micro-teaching? Explain its characteristics. (5+15)
What is Microteaching?
The art of teaching is a complex process, which is not limited to transferring of knowledge from
one to another.
It requires good verbal and non-verbal skills. It includes various techniques in order to transfer
knowledge effectively. Not everyone can master it.
With the vast growth in all sectors, effective teaching skills are in great demand. Therefore, due to this demand, the concept of micro-teaching came into action.
It is a new innovative program for teachers, which enhances their classroom attitude and
behavior. Many pre-primary education institutes have taken up micro-teaching practices in order
to equip teachers with an effective method of teaching.
Principles of Microteaching:
Microteaching revolves around certain principles to improve its reach in the all-round development of the teachers.

  1. One skill at one tim

In skills in microteaching are targeted one at a time. Training on particular skills are given until it
is mastered. Once mastered another skill is targeted next. Thus, micro teaching aims for one skill
at a time.

  1. Small scale content:
    Limiting the content gives more freedom and ease to the trainees. Thus, micro teaching is based
    upon the principle of limited content. Teachers are to prepare their lessons within the given
    content therefore it becomes easier for them to conduct their lessons.
  2. Practice makes a man perfect:
    Mastering skills require practice. While focusing on one skill at a time, micro teaching program
    also gives an opportunity to practice those skills. Lots of practice can boost the selfconfidence
    and promote in development of teaching skills.
  3. Experiments:

Experiments are the key factors in any concept. In micro teaching, many experiments are
conducted in order to test the skills of the teachers.
For example, the supervisors conduct experiments where the length of the lessons, time duration,
strength of students in the class etc is changed. These skills are tested under controlled condition.

  1. Instantaneous feedbacks:
    Micro teaching consists of teacher-pupil and supervisor as students. Once a session ends,
    teacher-pupil and supervisors come up with their feedback. This feedback is given instantly after
    the lesson plan ends. Thus, it helps in rectifying the drawbacks.
    Important features of micro-teaching:
  2. Micro-Element: It is based on the supposition that before one attempts to understand, learn and
    perform effectively complicated task of teaching, one should first master the components of that
  3. Technical Skills of Teaching and Teaching Strategies: A repertoire of teaching skills like
    lecturing, questioning or leading a discussion and mastery of teaching strategies is another
    important feature of micro-teaching
  4. The Feed-Back Element: It is another important element of micro-teaching. At present, “feed
    back” in the students teachers is ordinarily based >n supervisor’s recall and selective note-taking
    the evaluation of student teacher’s performance is based on overall impressions. In it subjective
    factors affect the evaluation and in the absence of objective criteria the student teacher may
    overtly or covertly oppose supervisor’s evaluations and suggestions.
    Following are some of the important sources of feed-back in the micro-teaching laboratory:
    (a) Oral feed-back of the laboratory supervisor.
    (b) Questionnaires filled in by the pupils learning in the micro- lesson.
    (c) Audio-tape recordings.
    (d) Video-tape recordings.
  5. Safe Practice Grounds.
  6. The Teaching Models: There are many styles of good teaching and trainees will develop their
    own individual styles using these models as guide.
  7. The Research Laboratory: According to Allen and Ryan, the following areas of research
    appear to make the most effective use of micro-teaching setting:

(a) In-house studies designed to optimize the procedures and sequences in micro-teaching
(b) Research in modeling and supervising techniques.
(c) Task-analysis of the teaching act and the investigation of the relationships between teaching
behaviour and student performances.
Q.5 Discuss the problems and issues in the secondary education also give suggestions to
resolve them.
Problems: The issues lead to the comprehension of the problems which are faced in the
development of education system and promotion of literacy. The study outlines seven major
problems such as:
1) Lack of Proper Planning: Pakistan is a signatory to MDGs and EFA goals. However it
seems that it will not be able to achieve these international commitments because of financial
management issues and constraints to achieve the MDGs and EFA goals.
2) Social constraints: It is important to realize that the problems which hinder the provision
of education are not just due to issues of management by government but some of them are
deeply rooted in the social and cultural orientation of the people. Overcoming the latter is
difficult and would require a change in attitude of the people, until then universal primary
education is difficult to achieve.
3 ) Gender gap: Major factors that hinder enrolment rates of girls include poverty, cultural
constraints, illiteracy of parents and parental concerns about safety and mobility of their
daughters. Society’s emphasis on girl’s modesty, protection and early marriages may limit
family’s willingness to send them to school. Enrolment of rural girls is 45% lower than that of
urban girls; while for boys the difference is 10% only, showing that gender gap is an important
4) Cost of education: The economic cost is higher in private schools, but these are located in
richer settlements only. The paradox is that private schools are better but not everywhere and
government schools ensure equitable access but do not provide quality education.
5) War on Terror: Pakistan’s engagement in war against terrorism also affected the
promotion of literacy campaign. The militants targeted schools and students; several educational
institutions were blown up, teachers and students were killed in Balochistan, KPK and FATA.
This may have to contribute not as much as other factors, but this remains an important factor.
6) Funds for Education: Pakistan spends 2.4% GDP on education. At national level, 89%
education expenditure comprises of current expenses such as teachers’ salaries, while only 11%
comprises of development expenditure which is not sufficient to raise quality of educat

Contact Master Academy For B.Ed/ Masters Thises-Reports & Proposals.
7) Technical Education: Sufficient attention has not been paid to the technical and vocational
education in Pakistan. The number of technical and vocational training institutes is not sufficient and many are deprived of infrastructure, teachers, and tools for training. The population of a state is one of the main elements of its national power. It can become an asset once it is skilled. The unskilled population means more jobless people in the country, which affects the national development negatively. Therefore, technical education needs priority handling by the government.
Poverty, law and order situation, natural disasters, budgetary constraints, lack of access, poor quality, equity, and governance have also contributed in less enrolments.
There is a need for implementation of national education policy and vision 2030 education goals.
An analysis of education policy suggests that at the policy level there are several admirable
ideas, but practically there are some shortcomings also.
It may not be possible for the government at the moment to implement uniform education system
in the country, but a uniform curriculum can be introduced in educational institutes of the
country. This will provide equal opportunity to the students of rural areas to compete with
students of urban areas in the job market.
Since the majority of Pakistani population resides in rural areas and access to education is a
major problem for them, it seems feasible that a balanced approach for formal and informal
education be adopted. The government as well as the non-government sector should work together to promote education in rural areas.
The government should take measures to get school buildings vacated which are occupied by feudal lords of Sindh, Balochistan and Punjab. Efforts should be made to ensure that proper education is provided in those schools.
The federal government is paying attention to the vocational and technical training, but it is important to make the already existing vocational and technical training centers more efficient so that skilled youth could be produced.
Since education is a provincial subject, the provincial education secretariats need to be strengthened. Special policy planning units should be established in provinces’ education departments for the implementation of educational policies and the formulation of new policies whenever needed. The provincial education departments need to work out the financial resources required for realizing the compliance of Article 25-A.
Federal Government should play a supportive role vis-à-vis the provinces for the early compliance of the constitutional obligation laid down in Article 25-A. Special grants can be provided to the provinces where the literacy rate is low.


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